许 钧教授 南京大学教授、长江学者、中国译协常务副会长
艾米?莎蒙丝（Amy L. Sommers）高盖茨律师事务所(K&L Gates LLP)上海办事处合伙人
丹?格特曼（Dan Guttman） 北京大学访问学者
林 巍教授 暨南大学外籍专家
刘 平先生 上海市人民政府法制办公室副主任
马 莉教授 华东政法大学外语学院硕士生导师
许 钧教授 长江学者、南京大学研究生院常务副院长
许 旭先生 中化国际（控股）股份有限公司法律部总经理
杨 平编审 中国翻译协会副秘书长、《中国翻译》副主编
叶 芳女士 锦天城律师事务所合伙人
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日期 年 月 日
试题一 (325 words)
The U.S. Supreme Court has not squarely confronted the death penalty's constitutionality since the 1970s. In that decade, the Court actually ruled both ways on the issue. In McGautha v. California, the Court first held in 1971 that a jury's imposition of the death penalty without governing standards did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment's Due Process Clause. But then in 1972, in the landmark case of Furman v. Georgia, the Court interpreted the Cruel and Unusual Punishments Clause to hold that death sentences―as then applied―were unconstitutional. In that five-to-four decision, delivered in a per curiam opinion with all nine Justices issuing separate opinions, U.S. death penalty laws were struck down as violations of the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments. The sentences of the “capriciously selected random handful” of those sentenced to die, one of the Justices wrote, are “cruel and unusual in the same way being struck by lightning is cruel and unusual.” Other Justices also emphasized the arbitrariness of death sentences, with some focusing on the inequality and racial prejudice associated with them.
Four years later, the Supreme Court reversed course yet again, approving once more the use of executions. After thirty-five states reenacted death penalty laws in the wake of Furman, the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of death penalty statutes in Gregg v. Georgia and two companion cases. The Court ruled that laws purporting to guide unbridled juror discretion―and requiring capital jurors to make special findings or to weigh “aggravating” versus “mitigating” circumstances―withstood constitutional scrutiny. The Court in Gregg emphasized that the Model Penal Code itself set standards for juries to use in death penalty cases. Only mandatory death sentences, the Court ruled that year, were too severe and thus unconstitutional. In its decision in Woodson v. North Carolina, the Court explicitly ruled mandatory death sentences, the norm in the Framers' era, were no longer permissible and had been “rejected” by American society “as unduly harsh and unworkably rigid.”
试题二 (348 words)
The main features of the Anglo-American civil trial developed in the practice of the English common law courts in medieval and early modern times, as a consequence of the jury system, in which panels of lay persons were used to decide cases. Legal professionals―judges and lawyers―operated the initial pleading stage of the procedure, which was meant to identify and to narrow the dispute between the parties. If the dispute turned on a matter of law―that is, on a question such as whether the complaint stated a legally actionable claim, or whether some particular legal rule governed―the professional judges decided the case on the pleadings. If, however, the pleadings established that the case turned on a question of fact, the case was sent for resolution at trial by a jury composed of citizens untrained in the law. So tight was the linkage between trial and jury that there was in fact no such thing as nonjury trial at common law. In any case involving a disputed issue of fact, bench trial was unknown until the later nineteenth century.
In the early days of the jury system, in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, jurors were drawn from the close vicinity of the events giving rise to the dispute, in the expectation that the jurors would have knowledge of the events, or if not, that the jurors would be able to investigate the matter on their own in advance of the trial. Medieval jurors came to court mostly to speak rather than to listen―not to hear evidence, but to report a verdict that they had agreed upon in advance. Across the later Middle Ages, the jury ceased to function in this way for complex reasons, including cataclysmic demographic dislocations following the Black Death of the 1340s and the effects of urbanization in producing more impersonal social relations. By early modern times, jurors were no longer expected to come to court knowing the facts. The trial changed character and became an instructional proceeding to inform these lay judges about the matter they were being asked to decide.
试题三 (358 words)
Among businessmen and lawyers familiar with commercial practice in complex transactions on both sides of the Atlantic, it is a common observation that a contract drafted in the
Why are American contracts so much more detailed than European? The Belgian legal writer Georges van Hecke discussed this subject in a stimulating paper that is now a quarter-century old. He offered three explanations. 1. Perfectionism. Van Hecke attributed to the American lawyer a drive “for perfection that is not commonly to be found in
试题四 (344 words)
In international law, including WTO law, it is well accepted that certain questions of a preliminary character which are independent from the merits may nonetheless stop the proceedings before findings on the merits are made. This eventuality need not be expressly stated in the governing instruments of the judicial body concerned. Questions of jurisdiction and admissibility are both part of the universe of preliminary questions that, while leaving the merits of the case untouched, have the potential to prevent or postpone a final judgment on the merits.
The difference between jurisdiction and admissibility is a feature of the general international law of adjudication. Besides the International Court of Justice, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) and arbitral tribunals have also made this distinction. For example, in SGS v. Philippines, the tribunal of International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes found that it did have jurisdiction to consider a contractual claim under the so-called "umbrella clause" of the bilateral investment treaty at issue. The tribunal, however, declined to exercise this jurisdiction, concluding that the claim was not admissible because of a forum clause in the contract stating that contractual claims must be brought to domestic courts. Importantly, neither the Statute of the International Court of Justice, nor the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States, under which SGS v.